The stop system that I use on my table saw sleds for cutting stock to length is described in the post below. I'm posting this for newbies but you nit picking old timers please be sure to comment when you find that it is a crutch or differs from what has worked for you for 40 years...:-)
This setup is used primarily for cutting stock to length that is shorter than the distance from the edge of the blade to the sled edge facing the rip fence. The components of the stops can be used in a setup for cutting tenon shoulders as well. The scale on my fence is very accurate (Thank you Bill Biesemeyer.) and this setup eliminates the use of a scale against the blade or marking the stock. The same stops could be used on a saw with no rip fence scale just employ your own method for setting the length. I use a 123 block between the stop end and fence to keep the stops from binding on the fence as the sled moves. (Remove the block after the initial setup).
For this method to work as shown it is important to make the stops an exact (recorded) dimension ( 16” and 4”my case) I used a 15 3/4” long piece of cherry cut off scrounged from the wood rack as the body of the long stop. I drilled a 1/4” hole in the end of the part and glued in a dowel as a contact point. This creates a relief area that keeps dust from building up during repeated cuts. After trimming each end square to the stop body and to length I saturated the end of the dowel with CA glue to create a wear surface. (overkill?) Simply add 17” to the length needed and the stock comes out the correct length.
When the stock length needs to be around 3” shorter than the length of the back rail there is not sufficient area to attach the 17" stop. This is where the second 5" stop is needed. The 5" stop has an offset plate that can be clamped at a height that lets the stock slide under and contact the dowel. Add 5" for this stop.