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Glossary of Woodworking Terms (Woodturner's Resource)

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  1.   1.  Air Cleaner
  2.   2.  Air Dried
  3.   3.  Aliphatic Resin
  4.   4.  Allen Wrench
  5.   5.  All-Purpose Blade
  6.   6.  Alternate Top Bevel (ATB)
  7.   7.  Aluminum Oxide
  8.   8.  Aniline Dye
  9.   9.  Annual Growth Rings
  10. 10.  Anti Kickback Pawl
  11. 11.  Apron
  12. 12.  Arbor
  13. 13.  Awl
  14. 14.  Backsaw
  15. 15.  Band Clamp
  16. 16.  Band Saw
  17. 17.  Bar Clamp
  18. 18.  Barrel Hinge
  19. 19.  Base Plate
  20. 20.  Batten
  21. 21.  Beading Tool
  22. 22.  Bearing
  23. 23.  Belt Sander
  24. 24.  Bench Dog
  25. 25.  Bench Grinder
  26. 26.  Bench Knife
  27. 27.  Bench Plane
  28. 28.  Benchtop
  29. 29.  Bevel
  30. 30.  Bird's-Eye
  31. 31.  Biscuit
  32. 32.  Biscuit Joiner
  33. 33.  Bit
  34. 34.  Blade Guard
  35. 35.  Blade Plate
  36. 36.  Blade Rim
  37. 37.  Blade Stabilizer
  38. 38.  Blank
  39. 39.  Blast Gate
  40. 40.  Block Plane
  41. 41.  Blushing
  42. 42.  Board Foot
  43. 43.  Book Match
  44. 44.  Bore
  45. 45.  Bow
  46. 46.  Box Joint
  47. 47.  Box Nail
  48. 48.  Brace
  49. 49.  Brad
  50. 50.  Brad Point
  51. 51.  Bridle Joint
  52. 52.  British Standard Whitworth (BSW)
  53. 53.  Bullnose
  54. 54.  Burl
  55. 55.  Burnish
  56. 56.  Bushing
  57. 57.  Butt Hinge
  58. 58.  Butt Joint
  59. 59.  Butt Matched
  60. 60.  Butterfly Hinge
  61. 61.  Cabinet Saw
  62. 62.  Cabinet Scraper
  63. 63.  Caliper
  64. 64.  Cap Iron
  65. 65.  Carbide
  66. 66.  Carcass
  67. 67.  Carving in the Round
  68. 68.  Case-Hardened Lumber
  69. 69.  Casework
  70. 70.  Casing
  71. 71.  Caul
  72. 72.  C-clamp
  73. 73.  CFM
  74. 74.  Chamfer
  75. 75.  Check
  76. 76.  Chip Carving
  77. 77.  Chuck
  78. 78.  Clear
  79. 79.  Cleat
  80. 80.  Closed Coat
  81. 81.  Close-Grained
  82. 82.  Clutch
  83. 83.  Coarse-Grained
  84. 84.  Coated Abrasives
  85. 85.  Collet
  86. 86.  Color Rendering Index
  87. 87.  Combination Blade
  88. 88.  Combination Machine
  89. 89.  Common
  90. 90.  Common Nail
  91. 91.  Compound Miter
  92. 92.  Compression Wood
  93. 93.  Contractor's Saw
  94. 94.  Cope
  95. 95.  Cope-and-Stick
  96. 96.  Corner Clamp
  97. 97.  Counterbore
  98. 98.  Countersink
  99. 99.  Cove
  100. 100.  Crossbearer
  101. 101.  Crosscut
  102. 102.  Crosscut Blade
  103. 103.  Crotch Lumber
  104. 104.  Crowning
  105. 105.  Cupping
  106. 106.  Curly
  107. 107.  Cutoff
  108. 108.  Cutoff Blade
  109. 109.  Cutoff Saw
  110. 110.  Cutter
  111. 111.  Cutterhead
  112. 112.  Cyanoacrylic
  113. 113.  Cyclone
  114. 114.  d
  115. 115.  Dado
  116. 116.  Dado Head (or Cutter)
  117. 117.  Danish Oil
  118. 118.  Dead-Blow Mallet
  119. 119.  Deck Screw
  120. 120.  Denatured Alcohol
  121. 121.  Detent
  122. 122.  Dewaxed Shellac
  123. 123.  D-handle
  124. 124.  Dial Indicator
  125. 125.  Diamond Dresser
  126. 126.  Dimensional Lumber
  127. 127.  Direct Drive
  128. 128.  Disk Sander
  129. 129.  Double-Stick Tape
  130. 130.  Dovetail
  131. 131.  Dowel
  132. 132.  Dowel Center
  133. 133.  Downdraft Table
  134. 134.  Dozuki
  135. 135.  Drawer Slide
  136. 136.  Drawknife
  137. 137.  Driver Bit
  138. 138.  Drum Sander
  139. 139.  Dry Fit
  140. 140.  Drying Oil
  141. 141.  Drywall Screw
  142. 142.  Dual Bevel
  143. 143.  Dust Collector
  144. 144.  Dust Nibs
  145. 145.  Dust Port
  146. 146.  Earlywood
  147. 147.  Edge Band
  148. 148.  Edge Grain
  149. 149.  Edge-Banding Tape
  150. 150.  Edge-Belt Sander
  151. 151.  Elbow
  152. 152.  End Grain
  153. 153.  Epoxy
  154. 154.  Equilibrium Moisture Content
  155. 155.  Extension Table
  156. 156.  Face
  157. 157.  Face Frame
  158. 158.  Faceplate
  159. 159.  Feather Board
  160. 160.  Feed Rate
  161. 161.  Feeler Gauge
  162. 162.  Fence
  163. 163.  Fiddleback
  164. 164.  Figure
  165. 165.  Filler
  166. 166.  Film Finish
  167. 167.  Finger Joint
  168. 168.  Finial
  169. 169.  Firsts and Seconds (FAS)
  170. 170.  Fishtail
  171. 171.  Fixed-Base
  172. 172.  Fixture
  173. 173.  Flat Sawn
  174. 174.  Flattening Agent
  175. 175.  Flat-Top Tooth
  176. 176.  Flint
  177. 177.  Flitch
  178. 178.  Flush-Trim Bit
  179. 179.  Forstner Bit
  180. 180.  Frameless Cabinet
  181. 181.  Framing Lumber
  182. 182.  Framing Nail
  183. 183.  Framing Nailer
  184. 184.  Fret Saw
  185. 185.  Fretwork
  186. 186.  Friction Polish
  187. 187.  Frog
  188. 188.  Full-Extension Slide
  189. 189.  Garnet
  190. 190.  Gib Screws
  191. 191.  Gingerbread
  192. 192.  Glue Line
  193. 193.  Gouge
  194. 194.  Grain
  195. 195.  Grain Reversal
  196. 196.  Green
  197. 197.  Green Woodturning
  198. 198.  Grit
  199. 199.  Groove
  200. 200.  Growth Ring
  201. 201.  Guard
  202. 202.  Guide Blocks
  203. 203.  Guide Collar
  204. 204.  Gullet
  205. 205.  Half-Blind Dovetail
  206. 206.  Hand Screw
  207. 207.  Handwheel
  208. 208.  Hardboard
  209. 209.  Hardwood
  210. 210.  Haunched Mortise-and-Tenon
  211. 211.  Heartwood
  212. 212.  Hide Glue
  213. 213.  High-Speed Steel (HSS)
  214. 214.  Hinge Mortise
  215. 215.  Hole Saw
  216. 216.  Hollow Grind
  217. 217.  Hollow Vessel
  218. 218.  Hollowing Tool
  219. 219.  Hone
  220. 220.  Honing Guide
  221. 221.  Hook
  222. 222.  Hot-Melt Glue
  223. 223.  Hybrid Table Saw
  224. 224.  Impact Driver
  225. 225.  Induction Motor
  226. 226.  Infeed
  227. 227.  Insert
  228. 228.  Insert Cutter
  229. 229.  Iron
  230. 230.  Jig
  231. 231.  Jointer
  232. 232.  Kerf
  233. 233.  Kickback
  234. 234.  Kiln
  235. 235.  Knife
  236. 236.  Knife Hinge
  237. 237.  Knot
  238. 238.  Lac Bug
  239. 239.  Lacquer
  240. 240.  Lag Screw
  241. 241.  Laminate (noun)
  242. 242.  Laminate (verb)
  243. 243.  Laminate Trimmer
  244. 244.  Lap Joint
  245. 245.  Lapping Plate
  246. 246.  Latewood
  247. 247.  Leg Set
  248. 248.  Linseed Oil
  249. 249.  Live Center
  250. 250.  Loose Knot
  251. 251.  Loose Side
  252. 252.  Luthier
  253. 253.  Machine Screw
  254. 254.  Mallet
  255. 255.  Mandrel
  256. 256.  Marking Gauge
  257. 257.  Marquetry
  258. 258.  Mechanical Compressor
  259. 259.  Medium-Density Fiberboard (MDF)
  260. 260.  Milk Paint
  261. 261.  Mineral Spirits
  262. 262.  Mission
  263. 263.  Miter Box
  264. 264.  Miter Gauge
  265. 265.  Miter Joint
  266. 266.  Miter Slot
  267. 267.  Miter Square
  268. 268.  Moisture Content
  269. 269.  Molding
  270. 270.  Morse Taper (MT)
  271. 271.  Mortise
  272. 272.  Mortise-and-Tenon
  273. 273.  Mortiser
  274. 274.  Mullion
  275. 275.  Nail Set
  276. 276.  Natural-Edge Turning
  277. 277.  Newel
  278. 278.  NGR
  279. 279.  Nondrying Oil
  280. 280.  Ogee
  281. 281.  One-By (1-by)
  282. 282.  One-Off
  283. 283.  Open Coat
  284. 284.  Open Time
  285. 285.  Open-Grained
  286. 286.  Orbital
  287. 287.  Oriented Strand Board
  288. 288.  Oscillating Drum Sander
  289. 289.  Outboard Turning
  290. 290.  Outfeed
  291. 291.  Overlay Door
  292. 292.  Paint Thinner
  293. 293.  Painter's Tape
  294. 294.  Palm Sander
  295. 295.  Panel
  296. 296.  Panel Saw
  297. 297.  Particleboard
  298. 298.  Parting Tool
  299. 299.  Pawl
  300. 300.  Pegboard
  301. 301.  Pen Lathe
  302. 302.  Penny
  303. 303.  Phillips
  304. 304.  Piano Hinge
  305. 305.  Pigment
  306. 306.  Pigtail Scratches
  307. 307.  Pilaster
  308. 308.  Pilot Bearing
  309. 309.  Pin
  310. 310.  Pin Nailer
  311. 311.  Pin Router
  312. 312.  Pipe Clamp
  313. 313.  Pitch (blades)
  314. 314.  Pitch (lumber)
  315. 315.  Pith
  316. 316.  Pivot Block
  317. 317.  Pivot Hinge
  318. 318.  Plain Sawn
  319. 319.  Platen
  320. 320.  Plug
  321. 321.  Plunge Router
  322. 322.  Plywood
  323. 323.  Pneumatic
  324. 324.  Pocket Hole
  325. 325.  Polyurethane
  326. 326.  Polyvinyl Acetate
  327. 327.  Positive Stop
  328. 328.  Pot Life
  329. 329.  Primary Wood
  330. 330.  Proud
  331. 331.  PSA
  332. 332.  PSI
  333. 333.  Pumice
  334. 334.  Push Stick
  335. 335.  PVA
  336. 336.  Quartersawn
  337. 337.  Queen Anne
  338. 338.  Rabbet
  339. 339.  Rack
  340. 340.  Rail
  341. 341.  Raised Grain
  342. 342.  Raised Panel
  343. 343.  Rake
  344. 344.  Raker
  345. 345.  Random Orbit
  346. 346.  Ray Flecking
  347. 347.  Reaction Wood
  348. 348.  Reciprocating
  349. 349.  Relief Carving
  350. 350.  Relief Cut
  351. 351.  Resaw
  352. 352.  Resin
  353. 353.  Rift Sawn
  354. 354.  Right Side
  355. 355.  Rip
  356. 356.  Rip Blade
  357. 357.  Riving Knife
  358. 358.  Robertson Head
  359. 359.  Rotary Cut
  360. 360.  Rotary Tool
  361. 361.  Rottenstone
  362. 362.  Rough Sawn
  363. 363.  Rough Turn
  364. 364.  Roughing Gouge
  365. 365.  Roundover
  366. 366.  Router
  367. 367.  Rubbing Compound
  368. 368.  Rubbing Out a Finish
  369. 369.  Runout
  370. 370.  S2S
  371. 371.  S4S
  372. 372.  Sacrificial Fence
  373. 373.  Sanding Drum
  374. 374.  Sapwood
  375. 375.  Sawyer
  376. 376.  Scarf Joint
  377. 377.  Scorp
  378. 378.  Scraper
  379. 379.  Scroller
  380. 380.  Scuff Sand
  381. 381.  Sealer Coat
  382. 382.  Secondary Bevel
  383. 383.  Secondary Wood
  384. 384.  Select
  385. 385.  Self-Indexing
  386. 386.  Self-Sealing Finishes
  387. 387.  Set
  388. 388.  Set Screw
  389. 389.  Shank
  390. 390.  Shaper
  391. 391.  Shaving Horse
  392. 392.  Sheen
  393. 393.  Sheet Goods
  394. 394.  Sheet-Metal Screw
  395. 395.  Shellac
  396. 396.  Shim
  397. 397.  Shooting
  398. 398.  Shooting Board
  399. 399.  Shoulder
  400. 400.  Shoulder
  401. 401.  Silicon Carbide
  402. 402.  Skew
  403. 403.  Skip
  404. 404.  Skip Tooth
  405. 405.  Sled
  406. 406.  Sliding Bevel
  407. 407.  Sliding Dovetail
  408. 408.  Sliding Table
  409. 409.  Slip Match
  410. 410.  Slip Stone
  411. 411.  Slot Mortiser
  412. 412.  Slurry
  413. 413.  Snipe
  414. 414.  Soft Start
  415. 415.  Softwood
  416. 416.  Sole
  417. 417.  Solid Surface
  418. 418.  Soss Hinge
  419. 419.  Spade Bit
  420. 420.  Spalted
  421. 421.  Specific Gravity
  422. 422.  Spindle
  423. 423.  Spindle
  424. 424.  Spindle Sander
  425. 425.  Spline
  426. 426.  Split Point
  427. 427.  Splitter
  428. 428.  Splotching
  429. 429.  Spokeshave
  430. 430.  Tack Cloth
  431. 431.  Tack Time
  432. 432.  Tail
  433. 433.  Tailstock
  434. 434.  Taper
  435. 435.  T-bolt
  436. 436.  Tear-Out
  437. 437.  TEFC
  438. 438.  Tempering
  439. 439.  Template
  440. 440.  Tenon
  441. 441.  Tension Wood
  442. 442.  Tensioning
  443. 443.  Threaded Insert
  444. 444.  Through
  445. 445.  Thrust Bearings
  446. 446.  Tiger Figuring
  447. 447.  Tipping Off
  448. 448.  T-nut
  449. 449.  Toe-Nail
  450. 450.  Toggle Clamp
  451. 451.  Tongue-and-Groove
  452. 452.  Tool Rest
  453. 453.  Torque
  454. 454.  Torx Head
  455. 455.  TPI
  456. 456.  Treenware
  457. 457.  Triple Chip
  458. 458.  Trunnion
  459. 459.  Try Square
  460. 460.  T-slot
  461. 461.  Tung Oil
  462. 462.  Tungsten Carbide
  463. 463.  Turn Between Centers
  464. 464.  Twist
  465. 465.  Twist Bit
  466. 466.  Two-By (2-By)
  467. 467.  UHMW
  468. 468.  Universal Motor
  469. 469.  Urethane
  470. 470.  Vacuum Press
  471. 471.  Vapor Respirator
  472. 472.  Varnish
  473. 473.  Veiner
  474. 474.  Veneer
  475. 475.  Veneer Press
  476. 476.  Veneer Roller
  477. 477.  Veneer Tape
  478. 478.  Veneer-Core Plywood
  479. 479.  V-tool
  480. 480.  Wane
  481. 481.  Warp
  482. 482.  Wash Coat
  483. 483.  Washboarding
  484. 484.  Water Stone
  485. 485.  Ways
  486. 486.  Web Clamp
  487. 487.  White Glue
  488. 488.  Wide-Belt Sander
  489. 489.  Winding Sticks
  490. 490.  Wire Edge
  491. 491.  Witness Lines
  492. 492.  Wobble Dado
  493. 493.  Wood Conditioner
  494. 494.  Woodcut
  495. 495.  Working Life
  496. 496.  Worm Drive
  497. 497.  Wormy
  498. 498.  x
  499. 499.  Yellow Glue
  500. 500.  Zero-Clearance Insert

1.  Air Cleaner

A ceiling or wall-mounted vacuum source with filtration that removes airborne dust from a shop; sometimes called an ambient air cleaner or air scrubber

2.  Air Dried

Wood that has been cured by natural air-drying

3.  Aliphatic Resin

The adhesive ingredient in yellow wood glue

4.  Allen Wrench

A six-sided bar, usually L- shaped, used to turn screws with recessed hexagonal heads; sometimes called an Allen key

5.  All-Purpose Blade

Circular saw blade with a tooth configuration designed to perform both crosscutting and ripping operations; also called a combination blade

6.  Alternate Top Bevel (ATB)

Teeth angled in alternated opposite directions on a saw blade

7.  Aluminum Oxide

A type of abrasive material used in sandpaper

8.  Aniline Dye

Water-soluble dye used for coloring wood

9.  Annual Growth Rings

Rings visible in wood end grain separating early wood from latewood; also called growth rings

10.  Anti Kickback Pawl

A table-saw attachment that allows cutting stock to move freely forward but whose teeth dig into the material to prevent it from ejecting backward toward the operator; also called antikickback spur

11.  Apron

Rails around the base of a table to which the top and legs are joined

12.  Arbor

The mounting shaft for a saw blade

13.  Awl

A sharp-pointed tool for piercing small holes in wood or other material

14.  Backsaw

Handsaw with a thin rectangular blade that is stiffened with a reinforcing spine along its length on the side opposite the teeth; used primarily for mitering and cutting dovetails

15.  Band Clamp

A flexible strap connected to a ratcheting mechanism used to tighten it around irregularly shaped objects; also called a web clamp

16.  Band Saw

Powered saw that cuts by means of a thin metal blade running in a continuous loop around two or more large drive wheels, used for making tight- radius curved cuts or for resawing wood

17.  Bar Clamp

A clamp composed of a metal bar with a fixed jaw on one end paired to an adjustable jaw, usually tightened with a screw together with a ratchet mechanism

18.  Barrel Hinge

A jointed device used to connect two components such as a box and its lid and consisting of two small cylinders that are recessed into holes drilled into those components in order to make the connection nearly invisible

19.  Base Plate

The flat underside of a portable power tool; sometimes called a sole plate

20.  Batten

A thin, flat board or strip of wood often used to cover the joint between two parallel boards or as a caul to apply even clamping pressure

21.  Beading Tool

A hand tool that creates a small, molded detail on the edge of a workpiece; can create single or multiple beads; also called scratch stock

22.  Bearing

A wheel mounted on a router bit shank that guides a router bit through a cut; sometimes called a rub bearing. A bearing can also be mounted on a fixture or jig to guide a tool or workpiece through a cut.

23.  Belt Sander

Handheld electric sander using an abrasive belt; used for rapid stock removal and for leveling panels

24.  Bench Dog

A round or square peg fitted to matching holes in a workbench surface; used as a stop to hold a workpiece in place

25.  Bench Grinder

A machine consisting of a motor and a shaft with a spinning wheel on one or both ends. Most commonly the wheel is an abrasive disk used to sharpen tools, but it can also be a wire wheel for cleaning or a cloth wheel for buffing.

26.  Bench Knife

A handled cutting and marking tool with a generally short, pointed blade, sharpened only on one side

27.  Bench Plane

Flat-bottomed hand tool consisting of a sharp blade called an iron and a mating cover called a chip breaker, which protrude through a slot in the tool's sole plate, used to smooth and flatten wooden stock. Other common features are a handle at the rear of the tool, a knob for grasping the front of the tool, and a mechanism to adjust the depth and position of the blade

28.  Benchtop

A description applied to a woodworking machine designed without its own stand and intended for use on a table or bench surface; benchtop machines are often considered portable

29.  Bevel

An angle measurement; can apply to lumber cuts, or to the angle of the cutting edge on chisels and other tools

30.  Bird's-Eye

A type of wood figuring that resembles dots or small eyes; most commonly found in maple

31.  Biscuit

Small, flat, football-shaped pieces of compressed wood glued into slots on opposing workpieces to align and strengthen joints

32.  Biscuit Joiner

Portable power tool used to cut slots for biscuits; sometimes called a plate joiner

33.  Bit

Any cutter designed to work while spinning, such as a router bit or drill bit; bits are mounted in a tool's chuck or collet

34.  Blade Guard

A protective shield covering the portion of a table saw blade or other cutter that protrudes through a table top, or a similar shield on a portable power tool

35.  Blade Plate

The flat disk that forms the body of a circular saw blade

36.  Blade Rim

The periphery of a circular saw blade where the teeth are located

37.  Blade Stabilizer

Thin plates that mount on the sides of a saw blade to help minimize vibration

38.  Blank

A square or rectangular piece of wood intended for carving or turning

39.  Blast Gate

On a dust collection system, a sliding door mounted in ductwork that allows airflow to be opened or restricted depending on need

40.  Block Plane

A small utility plane usually used one-handed

41.  Blushing

Milky discoloration of a wood finish caused when moisture is trapped in the curing finish

42.  Board Foot

A measurement of lumber equal to a board 1' long, 1' wide, and 1" thick; usually abbreviated bf when combined with a numeral

43.  Book Match

The pattern created when adjoining pieces of veneer or resawn wood are opened like a book, resulting in grain that is mirror-imaged

44.  Bore

The hole in a circular saw blade, sized to fit the saw arbor

45.  Bow

Wood defect where a board bends from end to end along its flat axis

46.  Box Joint

A corner joint made of interlocking square cuts on the ends of workpieces

47.  Box Nail

A wire nail with a sharp point and flat head similar to a common nail but with a thinner shaft and a slightly dulled point to prevent splitting thin wood

48.  Brace

Sometimes called bit and brace, a manual drilling tool consisting of an articulated crank-style handle and a chuck into which an auger bit is mounted

49.  Brad

A nail with a very small head designed to be driven flat with, or slightly below, the surface

50.  Brad Point

A wood boring bit similar to a twist drill but with a sharp spur at its point to lead the shaft into the hole

51.  Bridle Joint

A connection between two woodworking components similar to a tongue-and-groove joint but made on the narrow rather than the wide dimension of the material

52.  British Standard Whitworth (BSW)

Specification for the number and spacing of threads on screws and bolts, devised by 19th-century British engineer Joseph Whitworth

53.  Bullnose

The rounded-over edge of a piece of material used as a finish detail; also, a hand plane or router bit used to create such an edge in wood

54.  Burl

A rounded, often gnarled, protrusion on a tree trunk usually the result of disease; the highly figured wood cut from such a growth, often used for veneer

55.  Burnish

To firmly rub a surface in order to polish it or to adhere a glued surface treatment, often done with a rounded tool. Also, to treat the edge of a cutting tool to slightly roll the edge after sharpening.

56.  Bushing

In woodturning, small metal tubes used as guides to turn pen parts to the correct diameter for a finished pen

57.  Butt Hinge

Hinge consisting of two rectangular plates connected by a pin used to attach a door to a fixed component

58.  Butt Joint

Joint formed by placing two flat mating surfaces squarely against each other

59.  Butt Matched

The pattern created when two resawn pieces of wood are arranged end to end, resulting in grain that is mirror-imaged along the shorter dimension

60.  Butterfly Hinge

Type of butt hinge with its plates cut in a decorative winglike pattern

61.  Cabinet Saw

Heavy-duty professional table saw, generally equipped with a large cast-iron top, accurate fence, and powerful motor and blade mounted on a trunnion assembly attached directly to the cabinet, not the visible-m-inlineop, facilitating precision adjustment

62.  Cabinet Scraper

A flat piece of metal used to smooth a wood surface

63.  Caliper

Compasslike hand tool for measuring inside and outside diameters

64.  Cap Iron

The metal structure on a plane that holds the cutting iron in place; its curved edge creates the curled shaving common to hand planing

65.  Carbide

An extremely hard alloy used to create extra sharp and durable cutting surfaces on blades, bits, and other tools

66.  Carcass

The basic structure of a cabinet or other generally rectangular construct; sometimes spelled carcase

67.  Carving in the Round

A fully three- dimensional style of carving, as in sculpture

68.  Case-Hardened Lumber

Wood that has been improperly kiln dried such that the outer portion is dry but the inner portion retains moisture, resulting in internal stresses that cause the material to deform in an undesirable way

69.  Casework

Cabinets or other generally rectangular constructs

70.  Casing

Wooden trim around wall openings

71.  Caul

A piece of material, often scrap wood, placed between clamp and workpiece to provide even clamping pressure and prevent marring of the surface

72.  C-clamp

A clamp in a shape resembling the letter C and with a screw mechanism to tighten onto the workpiece

73.  CFM

Cubic feet per minute, generally used to measure airflow

74.  Chamfer

A 45° bevel cut to ease the sharp edge of a workpiece

75.  Check

Cracks in a piece of lumber cheek The wide face of a tenon

76.  Chip Carving

Style of carving in which numerous small pyramid-shaped bits of wood are removed from a workpiece by means of a series of shallow knife cuts

77.  Chuck

A cylindrical metal apparatus on a drill or other tool that can be tightened to hold a bit

78.  Clear

Description for a piece of lumber that is free of defects

79.  Cleat

A strip of wood or other material used to support or reinforce the surface to which it is attached

80.  Closed Coat

Type of sandpaper in which the abrasive grains are tightly distributed, used when clogging of the paper is not an issue

81.  Close-Grained

Any wood with narrow, inconspicuous growth rings, small pores, and a smooth surface texture, such as maple, cherry, and poplar

82.  Clutch

Apparatus on an electric drill that can control the amount of torque applied to a bit

83.  Coarse-Grained

Any wood with wide, conspicuous growth rings, large pores, and a grainy surface texture, such as oak, ash, and walnut; also called open-grained

84.  Coated Abrasives

Products such as sandpaper in which gritty material is adhered to a flexible backing

85.  Collet

The mounting collar of a router or rotary tool that holds a bit

86.  Color Rendering Index

A measure of how well a fluorescent light accurately renders true color, an important factor when gauging finishing and wood color; often abbreviated CRI on packaging

87.  Combination Blade

A circular saw blade with a tooth configuration designed to perform both crosscutting and ripping operations; sometimes called an all- purpose blade

88.  Combination Machine

A stationary woodworking machine, usually European-made, that combines a table saw, jointer, planer, and/or other machines into a single unit; sometimes called simply combo machine

89.  Common

The lowest grade of lumber, further broken down into #1, #2, and #3

90.  Common Nail

A fastener made from steel wire with a sharpened point on one end and a flat head on the other, generally available untreated (bright) or coated with zinc for rust resistance (galvanized)

91.  Compound Miter

An angled cut to both the edge and face of a board

92.  Compression Wood

A condition of lumber in which the tree was subject to mechanical stress, most often occurring below the stress point

93.  Contractor's Saw

A sturdy but somewhat portable table saw, often equipped with a cast-iron top and extension wings, an accurate fence, and a fairly powerful motor that can operate on standard house current, enabling it to be transported to a job site

94.  Cope

To cut a piece of wood so that it exactly matches the profile of another workpiece

95.  Cope-and-Stick

Joinery where complementary profiles, sometimes very intricate in shape, are glued together

96.  Corner Clamp

Clamp designed to hold corner joinery at 90°

97.  Counterbore

A cylindrical depression drilled into the surface of a workpiece in order to recess a screw or bolt head or nut

98.  Countersink

A conical depression drilled into the surface of a workpiece in order to recess a screw head

99.  Cove

A concave edge profile crook Wood defect where a board bends from side to side along its flat axis

100.  Crossbearer

A wooden caul, occasionally convex shaped, used to apply even clamping pressure to a glued-up assembly; sometimes called a batten

101.  Crosscut

To cut wood across the grain

102.  Crosscut Blade

Table-saw or handsaw blade designed for cutting across the grain

103.  Crotch Lumber

Wood obtained from the intersection of two major limbs of a tree, often yielding a desirable grain pattern

104.  Crowning

A deformed condition in lumber in which the edges bend away from the center, resulting in a convex shape

105.  Cupping

A deformed condition in lumber in which the edges bend away from the center, resulting in a concave shape

106.  Curly

A desirable rippled grain pattern in certain woods; often referred to as tiger, and sometimes called fiddleback

107.  Cutoff

The waste resulting from cutting a piece of lumber; sometimes call an offcut

108.  Cutoff Blade

For wood, a circular saw blade designed especially for crosscutting; for metal, a circular saw blade with an abrasive surface in place of cutting teeth

109.  Cutoff Saw

A powered crosscutting or miter saw, with models available for wood and for metal; sometimes called a chop saw

110.  Cutter

The sharpened component of a tool that makes contact with and slices, surfaces, trims, or otherwise shapes the workpiece

111.  Cutterhead

The spinning drum in which the knives (blades) of a powered wood surfacing tool such as a jointer or planer are mounted

112.  Cyanoacrylic

A fast-bonding glue; sometimes called "super" glue, or simply CA glue

113.  Cyclone

A type of dust collector that directs airflow in a circular motion to separate dust particles by size

114.  d

The abbreviation used to indicate the nail specification "pennyweight" (see penny); for example, 10d finish nails

115.  Dado

A rectangular groove cut across the grain

116.  Dado Head (or Cutter)

System of individual saw blades that are stacked to create dadoes of specific sizes; used in a table saw or radial arm saw

117.  Danish Oil

A type of penetrating wood finish, generally either clear or with a darker tint

118.  Dead-Blow Mallet

Striking tool with loose lead shot contained within its head to concentrate all its energy into a single, nonbouncing blow, and a soft face to prevent marring the workpiece

119.  Deck Screw

A coarse-threaded wood fastener, similar to a drywall screw but with a thicker, less brittle shaft

120.  Denatured Alcohol

Clear, colorless liquid used as a cleaner and solvent, as well as a fast-drying vehicle for finishes such as shellac

121.  Detent

A preset adjustment on a tool, usually set for common angles such as 45° or 90°; also called a positive stop

122.  Dewaxed Shellac

A natural wood finish derived from excretions of the lac beetle and further processed to separate out its naturally occurring wax component in order to prevent the cured finish from interfering with the bonding ability of subsequent finish coats

123.  D-handle

Part of a tool, shaped like the capital letter D, that allows the user to firmly grasp it

124.  Dial Indicator

An instrument for measuring short distances to very precise tolerances; sometimes called a dial gauge

125.  Diamond Dresser

A rough scraping tool used to clean debris from the surface of a grinding wheel

126.  Dimensional Lumber

Wood building material cut to standard sizes, both in width and thickness, such as a 2 x 4, and sold in various lengths

127.  Direct Drive

A motor shaft attached directly to a cutter or blade; sometimes called in-line

128.  Disk Sander

A powered surfacing tool, either handheld or stationary, that operates by spinning a circular abrasive disk

129.  Double-Stick Tape

Tape with adhesive on both sides, often used to temporarily attach components and jigs; sometimes called carpet tape

130.  Dovetail

Attractive and very strong joint formed by mating one or more angled, fan-shaped "pins" to correspondingly sized and shaped notches, called "tails." The joinery can be visible from both sides (through), from only one side (half blind), or invisible (blind).

131.  Dowel

A cylindrical length of wood, often used as a pin to reinforce a joint

132.  Dowel Center

A metal disk that slips into a dowel hole to mark drilling position on a mating workpiece

133.  Downdraft Table

A flat, perforated surface attached to a vacuum source used to remove dust during sanding

134.  Dozuki

Thin-bladed Japanese saw that cuts on the pull stroke

135.  Drawer Slide

A system of tracks and rollers that attaches to the outsides of a drawer box and the insides of the drawer opening enabling the drawer to be opened and closed and maintain its alignment within the carcass; also called a drawer glide

136.  Drawknife

A chairmaking tool with a straight blade with perpendicular wooden handles

137.  Driver Bit

A screwdriver tip that is installed in a drill in place of a drill bit to facilitate powered screw driving

138.  Drum Sander

Surfacing machine consisting of a spinning cylinder wrapped with a flexible abrasive sheet. Machines with smaller vertical cylinders are used for sanding curved surfaces and contours; machines with larger horizontal cylinders, sometimes called wide-belt sanders, are generally equipped with a conveyor belt and are often used to size pieces and panels to precise thickness.

139.  Dry Fit

To test-fit components without glue or fasteners

140.  Drying Oil

When used on wood, any oil- based finish that penetrates the surface and hardens when exposed to air; linseed and tung oil are drying oils

141.  Drywall Screw

Coarse-threaded wood fastener commonly used as an all-purpose wood screw, similar to a deck screw but with a thinner, more brittle shaft

142.  Dual Bevel

Describes a miter saw that can cut both left and right bevels

143.  Dust Collector

A system of ducts and hoses connected to a vacuum device for the removal of sawdust, wood chips, and other debris generated during woodworking operations

144.  Dust Nibs

Tiny specks of airborne particles that settle on a workpiece before the finish has dried, leaving a rough texture on the surface that must be sanded away before the next coat is applied

145.  Dust Port

An accessory attached to a power tool to connect it to a dust collection system

146.  Earlywood

Young, flexible timber that forms early in the spring and lies directly beneath the bark; also called springwood

147.  Edge Band

To apply a decorative veneer or other treatment to the exposed edges of plywood or other undesirable wood surface

148.  Edge Grain

Boards cut from the tree such that the growth rings run perpendicular to the face and parallel to the edges; also called vertical grain. Quartersawn wood displays edge grain.

149.  Edge-Banding Tape

Narrow, thin material, generally either wood veneer or plastic laminate, sold in rolls and used to conceal the exposed edges of plywood or other unattractive surfaces. Often supplied with pressure-sensitive or heat-activated adhesive applied to the back.

150.  Edge-Belt Sander

Surfacing machine consisting of an abrasive belt that both oscillates vertically and revolves and is mounted perpendicular to a horizontal table to achieve precise 90° edges; often combined in a single machine with a spindle sander

151.  Elbow

In a dust collection system, an angled connector joining two air ducts

152.  End Grain

Growth-ring pattern of wood as seen in cross section relative to the tree

153.  Epoxy

An adhesive capable of joining dissimilar materials and sometimes of filling voids, usually consisting of two parts, a resin and a hardener, which must be mixed together to activate

154.  Equilibrium Moisture Content

When a board's moisture content equals that of the surrounding air

155.  Extension Table

An accessory, often constructed of cast iron or pressed steel, designed to increase the effective width of a table saw or other power tool; sometimes called a wing

156.  Face

The outward (visible) surface of a cabinet or other piece of furniture or of a piece of wood

157.  Face Frame

The front of a cabinet consisting of vertical stiles and horizontal rails, to which the doors and drawers are attached

158.  Faceplate

A metal disk used to attach wood blanks to a lathe for turning bowls or similar projects that cannot be secured simultaneously by the headstock and tailstock

159.  Feather Board

Comblike accessory with flexible teeth that is attached to a cutting tool in order to hold the workpiece tight to the bit or blade and allowing it to move only in the direction of the cut, thus preventing kickback

160.  Feed Rate

The speed at which material is fed into a woodworking machine

161.  Feeler Gauge

Measuring tool consisting of several precisely sized strips of steel designed to achieve an accurate measurement of small gaps. Although commonly an automotive tool, it finds many applications in the wood shop.

162.  Fence

Fixture attached to a stationary machine or tool that guides the workpiece in a straight line against the tool, or guides a portable tool in a straight line against a workpiece

163.  Fiddleback

An attractive rippled grain pattern in wood often seen on the backs of violins; also referred to as curly or tiger

164.  Figure

A desirable pattern that sometimes occurs in a wood grain

165.  Filler

Material used to pack, stuff, or shim generally unseen voids or gaps

166.  Film Finish

Transparent outer protective surface of a piece of furniture or cabinetry that has been treated with a product such as lacquer or varnish

167.  Finger Joint

A method of connecting pieces of wood, either perpendicularly or end to end, by means of interlocking parallel cuts; sometimes used to describe a box joint

168.  Finial

Decorative cap most often placed atop a thin vertical object such as a newel post, flagpole, weathervane, or hinge pin

169.  Firsts and Seconds (FAS)

A designation for the two highest grades of hardwood lumber, followed by "selects" and "no. 1 common"

170.  Fishtail

A type of chisel used in wood carving, named for the shape if its blade

171.  Fixed-Base

A type of router in which the bit must be set at a single depth that is not adjustable during the cutting process

172.  Fixture

An auxiliary device secured to a tool to guide workpieces through the tool in a consistent and repeatable fashion

173.  Flat Sawn

Lumber cut in parallel slices from a log so that the grain pattern is partially or entirely parallel to the face of the board; also called plain sawn

174.  Flattening Agent

A chemical compound added to wood finish to reduce gloss; sometimes called flatting agent

175.  Flat-Top Tooth

Circular-saw tooth with 0° of bevel ground in the top, most often used for ripping wood; also called flat- top grind

176.  Flint

A low-grade abrasive used in inexpensive sandpaper

177.  Flitch

A thin slice of wood shaved or peeled from a log, most often made into veneer

178.  Flush-Trim Bit

Straight-sided cutter for use in a router, normally with an integral guide bearing that follows the shape of a pattern or workpiece, resulting in a cut that exactly conforms to that shape

179.  Forstner Bit

A drill bit used for making flat-bottomed holes, often in larger diameters than standard twist drills make

180.  Frameless Cabinet

Cabinet in which the top, bottom, sides, and sometimes fixed shelves form the structure without the need for a face frame; if doors are present they are attached directly to the sides by means of special hinges

181.  Framing Lumber

Lumber used primarily in the building trades, usually a nominal 2" thick (2x4, 2x6, etc.)

182.  Framing Nail

A large common nail or spike most often used in building construction

183.  Framing Nailer

A portable tool, most often powered by compressed air, used to drive large nails in building construction

184.  Fret Saw

A thin-bladed cutting tool similar to a coping saw but with a deeper frame; used to make the same types of cuts as a powered scroll saw

185.  Fretwork

Intricate decorative patterns cut from flat stock with a fret saw or scroll saw; often called gingerbread

186.  Friction Polish

Any finish that is cured by heat generated through friction; commonly used in woodturning applications

187.  Frog

Angled section of a hand plane body that supports the blade

188.  Full-Extension Slide

Type of drawer glide designed to bear the weight of a drawer box pulled all the way out of its opening

189.  Garnet

A medium-grade abrasive (a step above flint) used as the grit in sandpaper

190.  Gib Screws

Screws used to hold blades in place in a cutterhead

191.  Gingerbread

Intricate decorative patterns cut from flat stock with a fret saw or scroll saw; often called fretwork

192.  Glue Line

A smooth, flat surface on the edge of a board, suitable for joining to a similarly prepared board with no gaps; the appearance created by such a joint

193.  Gouge

A chisel having a curved cutting edge

194.  Grain

The pattern in wood resulting from the arrangement of the tree's growth rings

195.  Grain Reversal

In staining, when pigment adheres more thickly to the lighter areas of wood and not to denser dark areas, resulting in the reversal of light and dark grain areas

196.  Green

Freshly cut timber that has not yet been dried

197.  Green Woodturning

The practice of using uncured wood for turning blanks

198.  Grit

The abrasive material adhered to a backing to produce sandpaper and similar abrasive products

199.  Groove

Rectangular channel cut in the direction of the grain, usually along the long dimension of a board; similar to a dado, which is cut across the grain

200.  Growth Ring

A pattern of alternating light and dark wood created by seasonal changes during a single year of a tree's life cycle

201.  Guard

Any device designed to prevent hands from coming into contact with a cutting edge

202.  Guide Blocks

On a band saw, small metal, ceramic or phenolic blocks that mount on each side of the blade to keep it from twisting and flexing from side-to-side during cuts

203.  Guide Collar

A metal bushing attached to the base plate of a router through which the bit protrudes and which follows a pattern to produce a precisely shaped cut

204.  Gullet

The deep spaces between teeth on a saw blade

205.  Half-Blind Dovetail

Dovetails that are visible only on one side

206.  Hand Screw

A type of clamp with jaws that are tightened by twisting opposing threaded shafts

207.  Handwheel

An adjustment wheel on a piece of woodworking machinery

208.  Hardboard

A thin, hard-surfaced building material made from compressed wood fibers; often referred to as Masonite, a well-known brand name of hardboard

209.  Hardwood

Any lumber from a deciduous tree

210.  Haunched Mortise-and-Tenon

Like a standard mortise-and-tenon joint except the tenon has an additional stub or shoulder on the top that fits into a matching recess in the mortise

211.  Heartwood

Lumber taken from the center, dead portion of a tree

212.  Hide Glue

Adhesive made from collagen extracted from the skins of animals

213.  High-Speed Steel (HSS)

Heat-resistant metal alloy used to make cutting tools

214.  Hinge Mortise

A small recess cut in a door or frame to facilitate the flush mounting of a hinge

215.  Hole Saw

A circular cutting tool mounted in a drill with a pilot bit in the center and teeth around the perimeter, designed to create larger-diameter holes than are generally practical with standard drill bits

216.  Hollow Grind

A concave appearance of a bevel formed on a grinding wheel

217.  Hollow Vessel

A generally vase-shaped woodturning, often with an opening that is smaller than the diameter of the turning

218.  Hollowing Tool

A small-ended scraper, sometimes with a curved shaft, designed for making hollow vessels on a lathe

219.  Hone

A small stone used to give a fine edge to cutting tools

220.  Honing Guide

A jig designed to hold a chisel or plane iron at the correct angle for sharpening

221.  Hook

The amount of forward (positive) or backward (negative) lean of a tooth on a circular saw blade relative to the blade's circumference

222.  Hot-Melt Glue

A cylindrical plastic adhesive that is heated to melting temperature in a special glue gun/ applicator and bonds nearly instantly upon cooling to room temperature

223.  Hybrid Table Saw

A power tool that is similar in power and cost to a contractor's saw but sharing many design features of a cabinet saw, such as motor and blade mounting configuration

224.  Impact Driver

Power tool similar to an electric drill that combines rotary drilling motion with a back-and-forth tapping motion to secure screws, nuts, and bolts more efficiently

225.  Induction Motor

A heavy-duty electrical motor of the type found on most stationary woodworking machinery

226.  Infeed

The side of a stationary tool from which the workpiece is fed into a cutter

227.  Insert

A removable, often replaceable, part of a tool such as the throat plate on a table saw

228.  Insert Cutter

An accessory for a saw, router, shaper, molding machine, or other cutting tool, consisting of a heavy circular base into which two or more matching knives can be installed to create detailed profiles in wood. Knives with different patterns can be installed in the same base, helping to control tooling costs

229.  Iron

The cutting blade of a hand plane

230.  Jig

An auxiliary device most often secured to a workpiece to guide it through a tool (or a tool through the workpiece), or to make multiple measurements in a consistent and repeatable fashion

231.  Jointer

A machine that mills a straight, flat surface on lumber

232.  Kerf

The thickness of a saw blade; also the cut made by that blade

233.  Kickback

A highly dangerous situation in which a spinning blade snags a workpiece and hurls it back at the operator at high velocity

234.  Kiln

A heated container or small building used to dry lumber

235.  Knife

The replaceable cutting edge in a woodworking tool; also called a cutter or a blade

236.  Knife Hinge

A door-mounting device that opens and closes by means of a stack of interlocking flat metal bars, rather than a pin as in a standard hinge

237.  Knot

Defect in lumber created where a branch was attached to the tree

238.  Lac Bug

Insect (Laccifera lacca) whose secreted resinous shell is used for the creation of shellac finish

239.  Lacquer

A clear, fast-drying, solvent-based wood finish

240.  Lag Screw

A large, heavy-duty fastener most often used to anchor heavy components directly into a structure's wood framing; also called a lag bolt

241.  Laminate (noun)

A thin plastic layer attached to sheet material to create a smooth, colorful, and durable surface

242.  Laminate (verb)

(1) to attach laminate to sheet material; (2) the process of gluing up a larger workpiece from several smaller pieces

243.  Laminate Trimmer

A small router used primarily to trim the overhanging edge of applied laminate

244.  Lap Joint

A method of connecting two pieces of wood of equal thickness by removing half the material from the top surface of one piece and half from the bottom surface of the other and securing the two mating surfaces with glue or fasteners

245.  Lapping Plate

A smooth, perfectly flat plate of any hard material used for sharpening

246.  Latewood

Harder wood that is produced during the latter part of the growing season; also called summerwood

247.  Leg Set

An optional stand that converts a bench-based tool into a floor-standing machine

248.  Linseed Oil

A substance extracted from the seeds of the flax plant and used as a wood finish; available both boiled (referred to as BLO) and raw

249.  Live Center

One of two mounting points on a lathe for spindle turning, it spins on its own bearings and is installed at the nondriven, tailstock end

250.  Loose Knot

A knot that is detached from the surrounding wood, but frequently held in place within a board by its shape

251.  Loose Side

The rough side of a piece of veneer

252.  Luthier

Woodworker who specializes in making stringed instruments

253.  Machine Screw

Threaded fastener similar to a small bolt but with a slotted or Phillips head like a screw, used with a nut or in a tapped hole; sometimes called a stove bolt

254.  Mallet

A generally wooden, large-headed striking tool

255.  Mandrel

A mounting rod used to turn hollow cylindrical blanks on a lathe, as for pen parts

256.  Marking Gauge

A device that uses a knife or other sharp point to transfer measured lines to a workpiece

257.  Marquetry

Technique using veneer of contrasting woods cut into pieces and arranged to form a pattern

258.  Mechanical Compressor

Device that creates and stores compressed air to power pneumatic tools

259.  Medium-Density Fiberboard (MDF)

An engineered wood product made from compressed wood fibers, sawdust, resins, and waxes and generally available in 4'x 8' sheets

260.  Milk Paint

A milk-based (casein) furniture paint

261.  Mineral Spirits

A standard solvent for oil-based paint and varnishes; also called paint thinner

262.  Mission

Furniture style with predominantly straight lines and minimal ornamentation

263.  Miter Box

A tool used for cutting moldings and other narrow stock at precise angles, particularly 45° to achieve mitered corners; can be manual, used in conjunction with a backsaw, or powered with its own circular saw blade

264.  Miter Gauge

An accessory with an adjustable fence enabling angled cuts; has a rectangular runner on the underside that allows it to be used on any woodworking machine equipped with a miter slot

265.  Miter Joint

A joint created by joining two pieces of wood cut at complementary angles

266.  Miter Slot

A shallow slot on a woodworking machine that guides a miter gauge or other device equipped with a runner sized to fit to the slot

267.  Miter Square

A square used to measure or mark angles

268.  Moisture Content

The amount of water contained in a piece of lumber

269.  Molding

A length of wood into which a decorative profile has been milled, often used as transition between two walls or surfaces

270.  Morse Taper (MT)

A standard for mounting shafts used on drill presses, chuck components, and lathe centers manufactured with a slightly conical shape to facilitate quick bit changes and accurate centering

271.  Mortise

A generally rectangular cavity cut into a framing member to accept a mating tenon or a piece of hardware, such as a hinge

272.  Mortise-and-Tenon

A strong form of joinery in which a generally rectangular stub (tenon) cut on one piece of stock is inserted into a matching cavity (mortise) cut into another and secured with glue or pegs

273.  Mortiser

A machine similar to a drill press but with a hollow, square chisel surrounding the drill bit, used to cut square or rectangular cavities, known as mortises, in wood

274.  Mullion

A thin divider strip used to separate panes of glass or mirror within a multiple arrangement; sometimes called a muntin

275.  Nail Set

A metal tool similar to a punch used to recess the heads of finishing nails below the surface

276.  Natural-Edge Turning

A woodturning, usually a bowl or goblet, which features remnants of bark along the rim

277.  Newel

The upright post at the top or bottom of a staircase into which the banister assembly is mounted

278.  NGR

A non-grain-raising wood finish

279.  Nondrying Oil

When used on wood, any oil-based finish that penetrates the surface but does not harden when exposed to air; mineral oil and most vegetable oils are nondrying

280.  Ogee

An S-shaped decorative molding or edge profile consisting of a concave arc flowing into a convex arc; sometimes called a Roman ogee

281.  One-By (1-by)

Dimensional lumber nominally 1" thick

282.  One-Off

A one-of-a-kind project, usually a piece of furniture made to a customer's specifications

283.  Open Coat

Type of sandpaper that has abrasive grains spaced to cover only 50–70% of its surface in order to prevent clogging

284.  Open Time

The amount of time that glue can be exposed to the air and still be workable; also called working life or pot life

285.  Open-Grained

Any wood with wide, conspicuous growth ring, large pores, and a grainy surface texture, such as oak, ash, and walnut; also called coarse-grained

286.  Orbital

An eccentric, somewhat circular motion used by some powered cutting and sanding tools

287.  Oriented Strand Board

Type of building panel similar to plywood, made up of small, flat wood chips glued together to form large sheets; often abbreviated OSB

288.  Oscillating Drum Sander

A powered surfacing tool in which an abrasive cylinder simultaneously rotates and moves up and down for sanding complex shapes

289.  Outboard Turning

To pivot a lathe's headstock away from the lathe bed, increasing the machine's capacity for turning large bowls

290.  Outfeed

The side of a cutting tool where the processed material exits

291.  Overlay Door

A cabinet door that completely covers the front face of the box

292.  Paint Thinner

A standard solvent for oil-based paint and varnishes; also called mineral spirits

293.  Painter's Tape

Adhesive paper tape (usually blue) used to mask areas adjacent to surfaces being painted and then be easily removed without leaving any residue

294.  Palm Sander

A small, handheld power tool used to smooth wooden surfaces

295.  Panel

A flat rectangle of wood often constructed by gluing several boards together side by side

296.  Panel Saw

A woodworking machine used for cutting large sheets of material to a more manageable size

297.  Particleboard

A building or substrate material made by compressing tiny wood chips with adhesive and forming them into sheets

298.  Parting Tool

A chisel with a V-shaped cutting edge; also called a V-tool

299.  Pawl

The toothed component in a ratchet or a table saw's antikickback device

300.  Pegboard

A sheet of hardboard perforated with evenly spaced holes, most often used as a mounting surface for specialized brackets and hangers

301.  Pen Lathe

A very small lathe, usually weighing less than 12 pounds, used for small turnings such as pens and jewelry

302.  Penny

The specification designating sizes of nails; also called pennyweight. Abbreviated with the letter d; for example, 10d finish nails.

303.  Phillips

A type of screw invented by Henry Phillips in the 1930s, with a cross- shaped indentation in the head; also the cross-shaped screwdriver head used to turn it

304.  Piano Hinge

A long, narrow hinge with attachment points at short-spaced intervals and a connecting pin running its entire length

305.  Pigment

The component in paint, stain, or other finish that provides the color

306.  Pigtail Scratches

The curlicue scratches sometimes caused by handheld electric sanders; sometimes called swirling

307.  Pilaster

A flat, pillar-shaped detail added to the upper portion of furniture for decoration

308.  Pilot Bearing

A bearing mounted on a bit that guides the bit during a cut

309.  Pin

In a dovetail joint, that portion of the wood that fits between the tails

310.  Pin Nailer

A powered tool that drives tiny, sharp, nearly invisible pins into small moldings and other thin furniture components to provide mechanical fastening to supplement gluing

311.  Pin Router

A power tool with a router bit protruding from a horizontal surface similar to a router table but with an overhead locating pin that follows a pattern to guide the material over the bit in order to create multiple identical pieces

312.  Pipe Clamp

A clamp made by attaching a fixed jaw on one end of a length of steel pipe and an adjustable jaw at the other end

313.  Pitch (blades)

In saw blades, refers to the number of teeth per inch

314.  Pitch (lumber)

For lumber, refers to thick sap or resin deposits in the wood

315.  Pith

The central core of a log or tree branch

316.  Pivot Block

A guide used for resawing that allows the workpiece to be pivoted to follow a cut line; sometimes called a point fence

317.  Pivot Hinge

A type of hinge that enables a door or window to swing open around a single point

318.  Plain Sawn

The most common type of cut lumber; shows pronounced growth rings running almost parallel to the board's face

319.  Platen

A flat plate or caul often part of an assembly used to adhere veneer to a substrate

320.  Plug

A round piece of wood glued in place over a countersunk screw to hide the screw head

321.  Plunge Router

A router with the motor mounted on spring-loaded columns

322.  Plywood

Wood sheet made of individual layers of thinner wood, glued together with the grain of each layer running 90° to the adjoining layers

323.  Pneumatic

Air-powered; used to describe air-driven tools

324.  Pocket Hole

An elliptical slot bored at an angle in the face of a board, through which a screw is driven to secure that board to an adjacent piece of wood; sometimes called screw pocket

325.  Polyurethane

A type of flexible plastic used in sheeting, expanding foam insulation, and glues; often called simply poly

326.  Polyvinyl Acetate

The adhesive ingredient in white glue; often called PVA glue

327.  Positive Stop

A preset adjustment on a tool, usually set for common angles such as 45° or 90°; also called a detent

328.  Pot Life

The amount of time that glue can be exposed to the air and still be workable; also called working life or open time

329.  Primary Wood

The main wood used in project construction that is generally seen, such as tops, sides, doors, and drawer fronts

330.  Proud

Protruding slightly above the wood's surface

331.  PSA

Pressure sensitive adhesive; a peel-off backing on some sanding disks

332.  PSI

Pounds per square inch

333.  Pumice

A porous volcanic stone formed from cooled lava used to make a mild abrasive

334.  Push Stick

An accessory used to push a workpiece through a cutting edge, keeping hands a safe distance away

335.  PVA

Polyvinyl acetate; adhesive ingredient in white glue

336.  Quartersawn

Lumber cut with growth rings almost parallel to the board's edges

337.  Queen Anne

English furniture design based on the Baroque style developed during the reign of Queen Anne, 1702–1714

338.  Rabbet

A shelflike joint sized to match the workpiece that fits into it; European form is "rebate"

339.  Rack

A twisting action of a frame that can loosen joints

340.  Rail

The horizontal component of a frame

341.  Raised Grain

A lifting of grain on the surface of a board usually caused by the application of water or a water-based finish

342.  Raised Panel

A construction in which the thinned edges of a wooden panel are inserted into a channel formed on the inside edges of the stiles and rails; the panel used in such construction

343.  Rake

The angle of a cutting surface relative to the center line of the tool

344.  Raker

The flat-topped tooth in an alternate top bevel (ATB) circular saw blade that cleans out the material at the bottom of the cut to flatten it

345.  Random Orbit

The eccentric, swirling motion of a tool such as a disk sander designed to minimize the visible pattern of sanding scratches

346.  Ray Flecking

A desirable pattern on the surface of quartersawn lumber

347.  Reaction Wood

A condition of lumber in which the tree was subject to mechanical stress during its growth; see "compression wood" and "tension wood"

348.  Reciprocating

A back-and-forth motion as with the blade of a reciprocating saw

349.  Relief Carving

Carving style that is partially three-dimensional as seen from the front

350.  Relief Cut

A kerf cut on the hidden side of a board used to relieve internal stress on the visible side to prevent splitting or cracking

351.  Resaw

To cut wood into thinner multiple, often matching, pieces

352.  Resin

Thick sap or pitch deposits sometimes found in lumber

353.  Rift Sawn

A variation of quartersawn lumber sawn at 30° to 60° to the board's surface, producing vertical grain but no ray flecking

354.  Right Side

The side of a board that will be visible in the finished piece; the smooth side of a sheet of veneer

355.  Rip

To cut wood with the grain

356.  Rip Blade

Table saw or handsaw blade designed for cutting with the grain

357.  Riving Knife

A thin piece of metal behind a saw blade that prevents wood from touching the rear of the blade and possibly causing a kickback; unlike a splitter, which is fixed, a riving knife moves to always keep the same orientation with the saw blade

358.  Robertson Head

A type of square-drive screw

359.  Rotary Cut

Veneer cut by "peeling" thin layers off a turning log

360.  Rotary Tool

Small handheld electric tool that spins a variety of cutting, grinding, sanding, polishing, and other specialty tips; often used for hobby crafts

361.  Rottenstone

An extremely fine, gritty abrasive used for polishing

362.  Rough Sawn

Unsurfaced cut lumber

363.  Rough Turn

To bring a rough blank into a balanced, round shape on the lathe

364.  Roughing Gouge

A large gouge used to remove a lot of material quickly

365.  Roundover

A convex edge profile

366.  Router

Power tool used primarily for cutting edge profiles and mortises

367.  Rubbing Compound

Mild abrasive used to remove oxidization from the topmost layers of finish, thereby restoring its shine

368.  Rubbing Out a Finish

The process of using ultrafine abrasives to produce a highly polished surface

369.  Runout

The degree to which a rotating tool wobbles as it spins; an undesirable characteristic

370.  S2S

Lumber that has been surfaced on two sides

371.  S4S

Lumber that has been surfaced on all four sides

372.  Sacrificial Fence

A temporary fence attached to a main fence that is often damaged during the cutting process, then discarded

373.  Sanding Drum

A spinning cylinder wrapped with a flexible abrasive sheet

374.  Sapwood

Lumber taken from the outer, living portion of a tree

375.  Sawyer

A person who operates a saw; commonly used to describe someone who works in a sawmill

376.  Scarf Joint

An angled joint used to join wood end to end

377.  Scorp

Drawknife with a curved blade used for hollowing bowls and chair seats

378.  Scraper

A lathe chisel having a flat but rounded cutting edge

379.  Scroller

One who uses a scroll saw

380.  Scuff Sand

Light sanding given to wood finishes between multiple coats to improve adhesion of successive coats

381.  Sealer Coat

The first application of finish, designed to seal wood pores and fibers

382.  Secondary Bevel

An additional sharpening step performed on the cutting edge of a blade, chisel, or plane iron that creates a bevel a few degrees off from the primary bevel

383.  Secondary Wood

Wood used in project construction that is generally not seen, such as drawer boxes and interior cabinet shelves

384.  Select

The second-highest grade of hardwood lumber, which is at least 83% clear on one face

385.  Self-Indexing

Cutter knives in a woodworking machine that are notched or otherwise indexed so that they automatically seat in the correct position

386.  Self-Sealing Finishes

Any wood finish that seals the wood on the first coat

387.  Set

To drive a fastener, usually a nail, slightly below the wood surface

388.  Set Screw

A small screw commonly used to adjust a machine component, such as the level of the throat plate on a table saw, or the guide blocks on a band saw

389.  Shank

The portion of a bit or other cutter that mounts into a machine

390.  Shaper

A heavy-duty woodworking machine similar to a router designed to mill profiles on workpiece edges

391.  Shaving Horse

A combination bench and seat for carving; a movable end piece is held with the foot to clamp a workpiece in place, freeing both hands

392.  Sheen

Description of the amount of gloss in a wood finish.

393.  Sheet Goods

Plywood, MDF, or other materials usually sold in sheets, with 4' x 8' being the most common size

394.  Sheet-Metal Screw

A sharp-pointed, self-tapping threaded fastener most often used to attach pieces of thin metal to each other or some other material

395.  Shellac

A clear wood finish made from alcohol and the shell of the lac beetle

396.  Shim

Thin piece of wood or metal slipped into a gap to tighten it

397.  Shooting

The act of putting a straight edge on a workpiece

398.  Shooting Board

A perfectly straight piece of wood used as a guide for planing or cutting

399.  Shoulder

On a saw blade, a raised portion of metal behind each tooth that adds strength to the blade and helps prevent kickback

400.  Shoulder

On a wooden workpiece, the area that surrounds or abuts a projection; for example, the end of a board from which a tenon projects.

401.  Silicon Carbide

A very hard, uniform, fast- cutting abrasive material used in high- quality sandpapers and on the cutting edges of tools

402.  Skew

A straight chisel with an angled cutting edge

403.  Skip

To run a rough-sawn board through a planer just enough to reveal the wood's characteristics

404.  Skip Tooth

A saw blade with regularly spaced gaps between teeth

405.  Sled

Device to guide a workpiece squarely and safely through the cutting edge of a woodworking machine, usually a table saw

406.  Sliding Bevel

An adjustable square used to measure or mark angles; sometimes called a bevel gauge

407.  Sliding Dovetail

A form of joinery similar to a dado but with angled rather than vertical sides and a mating piece with grooves cut along its width at a corresponding angle

408.  Sliding Table

On a table saw, a movable portion of the table used to feed a workpiece squarely through the blade

409.  Slip Match

A veneer pattern created by aligning successive pieces side by side vertically but offsetting them horizontally

410.  Slip Stone

A generally handheld stone used to hone the inside curve of a gouge's cutting edge

411.  Slot Mortiser

A horizontal boring machine that cuts elongated slots

412.  Slurry

Pastelike mix of sawdust, abrasive, and liquid as the result of wet sanding

413.  Snipe

A slight concave that can occur on the ends of boards during milling

414.  Soft Start

An electronic control for an electric motor that eases the motor up to full speed when turned on

415.  Softwood

Any lumber from a conifer

416.  Sole

The bottom of a woodworking tool; often called the base

417.  Solid Surface

A very hard plastic material used for countertops

418.  Soss Hinge

A fully concealed knife-style hinge in which one side is mortised into the door and the other side is mortised into the door frame

419.  Spade Bit

Drill bit with a wide, spade- shaped cutting edge used to drill large-diameter holes

420.  Spalted

Lumber where natural decay has caused unique and attractive grain patterns

421.  Specific Gravity

A measurement of the density of wood

422.  Spindle

In machinery, the mounting post of a power tool

423.  Spindle

In woodturning, a cylindrical turning on the lathe

424.  Spindle Sander

Machine with a round, oscillating sanding drum that protrudes at 90° through a metal work table

425.  Spline

A thin strip of wood set into opposing slots of wood being joined; when used on the outside corner of a miter joint, it is called a miter key

426.  Split Point

Type of drill bit with pilot point at the tip for accurate hole location

427.  Splitter

A thin piece of metal or plastic behind a saw blade that prevents wood from touching the rear of the blade and possibly causing a kickback

428.  Splotching

An area on wood surface where stain has been absorbed unevenly; also called blotching

429.  Spokeshave

A hand tool with a thin blade used to create rounded workpieces

430.  Tack Cloth

A sticky cloth used to remove dust from freshly sanded wood before staining or finishing

431.  Tack Time

The time it takes glue to begin to hold

432.  Tail

The cutout portion of a dovetail joint, designed to accept a matching pin

433.  Tailstock

The apparatus on the unpowered side of a lathe that holds a workpiece for spindle turning

434.  Taper

Any cut that gradually decreases a workpiece's dimension toward its end

435.  T-bolt

Bolt with a T-shaped head, designed to slide into a slot before being tightened; often used for temporary tightening or attachment of jigs, fixtures, and fences

436.  Tear-Out

Splintering caused on the underside or end of a workpiece when a saw blade, router bit, or other cutter exits the wood

437.  TEFC

Totally enclosed fan-cooled; describes a sealed motor with an internal impeller designed to lower the operating temperature

438.  Tempering

Process of using heat to harden a blade or knife to better accept a sharpened edge

439.  Template

A pattern used to guide a router or other cutting tool

440.  Tenon

The stub cut on the end of a workpiece intended to be inserted and secured into a matching cavity, or mortise, cut into another workpiece

441.  Tension Wood

A condition of lumber in which the tree was subject to mechanical stress, most often occurring in deciduous trees above the stress point

442.  Tensioning

Describes the amount of tautness applied to a band saw blade by adjusting the upper support wheel

443.  Threaded Insert

A small metal cylinder threaded both inside and out, designed to be screwed into a workpiece and left there as an anchoring point for a bolt or other fastener

444.  Through

Any cut that goes completely through a workpiece, such as a through mortise

445.  Thrust Bearings

Metals wheels mounted behind a band saw blade that support the blade during cuts to prevent flexing

446.  Tiger Figuring

A type of wood figuring that resembles a tiger's stripes

447.  Tipping Off

The practice of smoothing out a wet finish by holding the brush at 45° to the surface as it is swept the length of a workpiece

448.  T-nut

T-shaped mounting hardware driven into a workpiece and left there as an anchoring point for a bolt or other fastener

449.  Toe-Nail

To drive nails at an angle to the workpiece

450.  Toggle Clamp

A clamp with set open and closed positions, usually adjustable to a specific dimension

451.  Tongue-and-Groove

A variation on a mortise-and-tenon joint, formed by mating a groove cut along the length of a board's edge with a tenon formed along the mating piece

452.  Tool Rest

A horizontal metal bar on a lathe that holds a chisel steady while cutting

453.  Torque

A measure of the amount of force used to rotate a shaft

454.  Torx Head

Type of screw head that resembles a star pattern

455.  TPI

Teeth per inch

456.  Treenware

Carved woodenware, such as eating or cooking utensils

457.  Triple Chip

Flat-top teeth on a saw blade that have been chamfered 45° on the corners of the cutting edge

458.  Trunnion

Metal mounting brackets that hold a motor

459.  Try Square

A hand tool used to measure, confirm, and mark right angles

460.  T-slot

A slot of metal or wood in an inverted T shape, used as a guide for accessories

461.  Tung Oil

An oil finish made from tung nuts; the term is often used generically to describe any penetrating oil finish

462.  Tungsten Carbide

An allow of tungsten and carbon used to harden edges

463.  Turn Between Centers

Spindle turning on the lathe with the workpiece held between the headstock and tailstock

464.  Twist

Lumber defect where the board is twisted along its length

465.  Twist Bit

Drill bit featuring a recessed spiral cut along the length of the bit

466.  Two-By (2-By)

Dimensional lumber nominally 2" thick

467.  UHMW

Ultrahigh molecular weight plastic; commonly used to create sliding jigs

468.  Universal Motor

A small electrical motor with a high power-to-weight ratio, used primarily on portable woodworking tools

469.  Urethane

A plastic binder used in a coating that cures very hard, imparting high durability to finished wood

470.  Vacuum Press

A plastic bag that holds a glued-up veneered workpiece and that, once air has been evacuated, presses the veneer in place until dry

471.  Vapor Respirator

A facemask used to protect against dust inhalation

472.  Varnish

Any of a number of hard-curing film finishes used on wood

473.  Veiner

A small gouge used to carve thin grooves or lines

474.  Veneer

An extremely thin sheet of wood, generally adhered to a thicker piece of secondary wood called a substrate

475.  Veneer Press

Method of clamping an entire sheet of veneer to a substrate. Small veneer presses may have a handwheel and screw that tightens as a single unit on a workpiece; large presses consist of multiple clamps that spread pressure through a system of cauls and platens

476.  Veneer Roller

A roller used to smooth freshly glued veneer to its substrate

477.  Veneer Tape

Thin, removable paper tape applied to the face side of veneer to join separate pieces together while they are being glued to a substrate; it is removed after the glue has dried

478.  Veneer-Core Plywood

Plywood made by gluing multiple sheets of veneer with grain alternating at 90° in each layer

479.  V-tool

A chisel with a V-shaped cutting edge; also called a parting tool

480.  Wane

A natural edge on lumber, often with bark still attached

481.  Warp

Any defect in lumber that deforms a board's shape

482.  Wash Coat

A very thin coat of finish, often used as a seal coat

483.  Washboarding

Describes the ridges formed when veneer is improperly glued to its substrate

484.  Water Stone

A flat abrasive stone used for sharpening cutting edges; lubricated with water in use

485.  Ways

The bed rails on a lathe

486.  Web Clamp

A flexible strap connected to a ratcheting mechanism used to tighten it around irregularly shaped objects; also called a band clamp

487.  White Glue

Wood glue based on polyvinyl acetate with woodworking properties similar to yellow glue but offering a longer working time; sometimes called PVA glue

488.  Wide-Belt Sander

A stationary sanding machine that uses a sanding belt larger than 12" in width

489.  Winding Sticks

Perfectly straight pieces of wood set on a board in pairs to determine the amount of twist by sighting along the board's length and noting the difference in orientation between the two sticks

490.  Wire Edge

The thin burr that forms on a cutting edge during sharpening

491.  Witness Lines

A shape or series of lines drawn over multiple workpieces to indicate assembly orientation; sometimes called witness marks

492.  Wobble Dado

A dado cutter composed of a single blade that is angled to widen the cut made as the blade spins

493.  Wood Conditioner

Solution applied to wood prior to staining to prevent uneven stain absorption; sometimes called stain controller

494.  Woodcut

A type of relief carving where an image is created by removing waste below the surface of the wood

495.  Working Life

The amount of time that glue can be exposed to the air and still be workable; also called open time or pot life

496.  Worm Drive

A driveshaft with a spiral groove that transfers rotation at a 90° angle to the motor; used most commonly in circular saws

497.  Wormy

Wood with channels and tunnels caused by insect damage; often an attractive and desirable trait

498.  x

Signifies "by" when used to connect two dimensions, such as 8" x 10"

499.  Yellow Glue

Common woodworking glue based on aliphatic resin

500.  Zero-Clearance Insert

A plate mounted into a saw table that surrounds the blade such that there is virtually no clearance at the sides of the blade, used to minimize tear-out

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