A pro wouldn't be caught dead using a camera that takes 1/4 second to capture the image. My Canon 1Dx II (very much a pro body) has a 55 msec lag from shutter press to first frame capture for example.
Some newer cameras can "pre-trigger" as the OP described when in video mode, i.e. they continuously capture video and then grab a sequence of frames on both sides the shutter press. Some recent phones (iPhone 7 and 8 IIRC) do that. It hurts battery life for obvious reasons, and quality is also a bit compromised by running in video rather than photo mode, though.
Pros have a litany of tricks and techniques to deal with these sorts of subjects without resorting to video.
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- What camera shoots before pressing shutter button