Dan and Verne got it.
Response To:
Monday, 2nd round ()

Gary Smyth
>ANS:The ell rule was 1 ¼ yards used mostly for selling cloth, originally from the tip of the shoulder to a point where the thumb and forefinger pinched together at the end of ones opposite outstretched arm. In the English system, one ell equals 20 nails, 45 inches, or 1.25 yards (exactly 1.143 meters). The word comes from the Latin ulna, which originally meant the elbow and is now the name of the bone on the outside of the forearm. The history of the unit is not clear. Some authorities believe the ell was originally a double forearm length, that is, 2 cubits or 36 inches, the same length as a yard. The ell and the yard do seem to be identified in some medieval documents, with ulna being used for both, and in Scotland the ell was equal to 37 Scots inches or 37.2 English inches (94.5 centimeters), only slightly longer than the yard. (This Scottish length might also reflect an old practice of cloth merchants in giving an extra inch with each yard, to allow for any irregular cutting at the ends of the piece.) This cloth ell was used with a similar length in France, where it was called the aune--but it is 4.5 cm (1.77 inches) shorter than the English ell. The Dutch el and German elle are a little more than half the English ell; they may represent "arm's-length" units like the Italian braccio, the Russian sadzhen, and the Turkish pik.;

A fence viewer was the judge and surveyor for a plot of ground. He carried a pole or ROD sixteen and ½ feet long as a measure;

A "S" or "Z" bridge was made to take the shortest path across a river or stream (perpendicular to stream) if the roads approached from an angle (the example mentioned is in tact, but a rather disappointing structure in Buffalo Twownship alongside current route 40 (National Pike)just south and outside of Washington, PA, 15301;

A breast wheel was a water wheel that turned with the mass of the water hitting the wheel neither from above or along the bottom of the wheel. (See animation) Normally it was fed by a conduit running water from a a remote raceway. It was the third type of wheel that was not overshot (water race above wheel) or undershot (water below wheel);

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